Generators, which convert any type of energy to electrical energy machines.
These devices include machinery that converts mechanical energy into electrical energy, batteries that convert chemical energy into electrical energy, photoelectric cells that convert light energy into electricity and thermoelectric generators that convert heat energy into electrical energy..
Today, when the generator is mentioned, the first thing that comes to mind is the machines that convert mechanical energy into electrical energy.
These generators are able to work with wind or hydroelectric energies and diesel, gasoline or natural gas fuels are used in the generators we use in daily life.
The most preferred type of generator in industrial areas is diesel fuel generators.
Power Calculator Info Needed
Descriptions of Measurement and shortened
P: Electrical or mechanical power in terms of KW
KWm: Output power (m=mechanical) in terms of KW
KWe: Electrical power in terms of KW
PF: Power Factor (Cos Φ - 0.8 or 1.0)
EEF: Generator Alternator Efficiency Percentage (%)
U (V): Voltage
KVA: Real Electric Power
RPM: Revoulation Per Minute
Hz or Cycle: Number of cycles per minute
Pd (KWm): Mechanical engine power
The following points should be considered when purchasing a generator;
1. When purchasing a generator, generator manufacturer companies with strong references and with service network should be preferred.
2. In the selection of a generator company, the companies with a generator test laboratory should be preferred. The fact that the purchased generator is tested at idle load after manufacturing does not indicate that the generator is running smoothly. Only when the generators are operated at full load can their efficiency be determined accurately.
3. Before purchase of the generator, a power measurement must be carried out by an expert team. The most common mistake is to determine the power according to the labels on the devices in the place where the generator will be used. Thus, the inrush currents are ignored and the wrong generator selection has been made.
4. Especially for the generators to be purchased for professional purposes, generator selection should be made considering environmental factors (ambient conditions, altitude, etc.). These services can only be provided by specialized companies.
5. It is wrong to only compare prices between generators. It should be remembered that generators are usually purchased with the expectation that they will meet the urgent energy need and will work in a performance manner for many years. Therefore, it will be more profitable in the long run to buy generators manufactured using quality materials and not to prefer cheap products.
6. Generators, engines, alternators must be purchased with the sales contract specified in the brand and origin.
7. Information regarding periodic maintenance should be requested during generator purchase.
8. Spare parts of the generator to be purchased (especially for the engine) should be easily findable.
9. In generators that will be purchased with sound isolation booth or trailer, the companies producing these parts should be preferred. Although sound insulation cabinets seem like a simple product, they require high technology and expertise in terms of air circulation, easy transportation, sound insulation quality, IP protection class, fuel tank compartment and paint. Ses izolasyon kabinleri basit bir ürün gibi görünsede, hava sirkülasyonu, kolay taşıma, ses yalıtım kalitesi, IP koruma sınıfı, yakıt tankı bölmesi, boya gibi üretim bölümleri bakımından yüksek teknoloji ve uzmanlık gerektirir.
10. TSE, CE, ISO certified generators should be preferred.
It is appropriate to consider the average values of the following elements regarding the space where the generator will be used.
a) Elevation from sea level of the place where the generator set upb) Annual average moisture percentage at the place where the generator will be installedc) Annual temperature averages at the place where the generator will be installed
Today, the most preferred generator types are industrial diesel engine generators and portable type small generators. Industrial type generators are designed for 24 hours continuous usage and manufactured for long years. Portable generators are generally used to meet the energy needs of 3-5 hours.
The most important parts of industrial type generators are the engine and alternator. Each manufacturer produces generators using different engine brands (RDE, Yavuz, Volvo, Cummins, Perkins, MTU ... etc) and alternators (Synchronous, Leroy Somer, Stamford, Marathon ... etc).
These types of generators are generally preferred with Sound Insulation Cabins because they produce high decibel sound. In case the generators need to be transported, trailer type generators are preferred.
Industrial generators are manufactured as Low Voltage and Medium and High Voltage generators upon request. Generators used in homes and workplaces are low voltage generators. These generators are 50-60Hz. Monophase (240V) and three-phase (380V) outputs are available.
One of the most important parts of generators are Control and Distribution panels. Control panels are used for automatic and manual operation of generators, for monitoring of electrical values and detection of faults.
As we said in the section on what is the generator, the most common generators today are those that convert mechanical energy into electrical energy. The systems that make up these generators are;
- Control Board
Alternator consists of three parts
1. Engine part rotated about the axis through which the motion is transmitted.
2. Stator, the fixed part of the rotor in which the electrical connections are made.
3. Electronic voltage regulator that secures the voltage.
The Control Panel is the part of the genset and other electrical equipment that is necessary for the operation, adjustment and monitoring of the genset.
In an electromagnetic generator, called a dynamo, a coil is moved within the magnetic field to cut the induction lines. In an electrostatic generator (Van de Graaf generator, Wimshurst machine), mechanical energy is consumed by dividing it into equal and opposite electrical loads produced by electrostatic induction or friction.
Generators are manufactured in different sizes and capacities from the smallest facility to the largest. The ones that produce alternating current are called alternators and the ones that generate direct current are called direct current generators or dynamo. The source of electrical energy, whether AC (alternating current) or DC (direct current), is the same. Only the draft of the machine is different.
The mechanical energy required to start a generator is provided by means of first-acting devices such as water turbine, steam turbine, internal combustion engine or gas turbine. There are two types of main machines that convert mechanical energy into electrical energy: AC generators and DC generators. Most of the electrical energy is produced today by AC generators and these devices are called Alternators. AC, Initials of the English Alternating Current words; DC is used by taking the initial letters of Direct Current words. Alternators, also called synchronous generators, are the main generators in almost all steam and water power plants. Because transformers easily raise and lower the alternating voltage. High voltage is suitable for transporting electrical energy over long distances, and low voltage is suitable for distribution and use.
Working principle: The working theory of most electric generators is based on Faraday's law. When the number of magnetic current lines surrounding a wire coil (maxwell) is changed, an electromotive force is generated in the coil which is proportional to the number of windings relative to the magnetic flux. The instantaneous voltage value E = -n (df) / dt) is 10-8 volts. Where n is the number of turns, f is the magnetic flux in maxvell and t is the time in seconds. A minus sign indicates that the induced voltage is opposite to the force that generates it. When one part of the generator is moved mechanically with respect to the other, voltage is induced in the generator windings, so that magnetic flux is generated around the coil called the armature windings. The magnetic flux can be obtained from the permanent magnet, DC field winding or AC source.
Structure: In practice, permanent magnetic fields are used only in small generators. Except for induction generators, large generators are equipped with DC field windings. Field windings are normally wound on the stator of most DC generators, and on AC generators the field windings are normally wound on the rotor. Field windings only require two wires that transmit electrical current from the dynamo to low voltage and power. They are easily insulated against rotational forces.
Any part of the magnetic circuit which is not subject to flux exchange may be of solid steel. This includes the field poles of DC machines and parts of the entire rotating field structure of some AC generators.
Special types of generators: Homopolar Generator (HPG): This is the only machine that produces direct current. All other types of DC generators generate AC in the armature windings and then convert the AC to DC via the commutator. HPG does not have armature windings or commutators. This difference makes this generator a very robust machine. Although HPG is the first electromechanical generator, it has recently entered the field of application.
Magneto Hydrodynamic Generator: This generator consists essentially of electrically conductive gas (ionized gas), two electrodes and field windings that produce a magnetic field ejected from a high velocity. These generators are not yet very efficient. Because a high temperature or a large amount of potassium is required to make the gas sufficiently conductive.
High frequency generators: Frequencies higher than 60 Hertz are particularly useful when the minimum weight and size of the electrical device is important. For example, 400 Hertz power supply is widely used in aircraft.
In 1831, Michael Faraday produced a small generator called “Faraday disk en that could produce electricity, but his invention did not lead to major technological breakthroughs in those years.
In the 1850s, dynamos, which started to be produced in series, were widely used for the first time for lighting purposes.
When Thomas Edison and Joseph Swarm found the electric bulb in 1880, generators and power supplies were in great need. In 1882, Edison established DC generating centers in New York, London and Milan to use electrical energy to illuminate.
Soon there was a debate about the use of DC and AC currents. As a result of the developments in transformers and generator systems until the beginning of 1890, the American Nikola Tesla AC proved the advantages of its use in electrical power transmission. The first large hydroelectric power plant using AC generators was opened in 1895 at Niagara Falls.
Today, generators have become one of the indispensable elements of our lives. Recently, nano generators have been developed for robots and machines.
You can obtain all consumables and spare parts for your KARJEN generator from our regional dealers. You can also get information and quotation from KARJEN for your spare parts requests that may occur for each brand of engine, alternator and generator set.
You must follow the calendars in the Service and User Manual that come with your generator set. However, a number of factors can cause you to increase the frequency of maintenance and control. The user is responsible for operating frequency and duration, load condition, oil-fuel quality, ambient temperature, dirty-dusty environment, maintenance, inspection and timely replacement of worn material (engine oil, filters, V-belt, antifreeze, injector, etc.). We recommend general checks, adjustments and tests every 2-3 months. General maintenance and engine oil-filter replacement should be carried out once a year, even if the operating hours have not expired. You should also test your generator set once a week for 10-15 minutes.
Contact your local dealer for any maintenance and checks on your generator set in a safe, accurate and economical manner.
KARJEN products are guaranteed against parts and manufacturing defects. For warranty period and scope details, please check the documentation that came with your product or consult our representative.
It is also objectionable to use the generator set at low loads, such as the capacity specified in the label values. Doing so will shorten the engine life and cause serious damage. Particular attention should be paid to this when using large power generator sets.
The number of revolutions of the generator set in 1 minute. Generally, the engine and alternators are at 1500 rpm for 50Hz. or 3000 rpm, 1800 rpm for 60Hz. or 3600 rpm. They are produced as.
The label (Standby, Prime, Continuous) indicates that the generator set can be operated. To use above these operating conditions will cause the following problems:
- Overheating of the engine
- Increased wear on the engine
- Overheating of alternator windings
- Thinning of lubricating oil and drop in oil pressure
- Shorter engine life
All generator sets produce sound due to the exhaust, engine housing and fans. It is necessary to take measures according to the location of the installation. KARJEN sound insulation cabinets provide the optimum solution by providing maximum sound control.
Determining the power of the generator set is a specialty and depends on many factors.
There are many points to consider, from the operating category to the characteristics of your loads, the environmental conditions to the product options. You can get help by contacting KARJEN or regional dealers.
Each model generator may have a different set of options and options.
The main components are:
- Daily fuel tank
- Control Panel
- Transfer Panel
To use the generator for long period without problems, positioning and installation must be done correctly. You can contact KARJEN at every stage for detailed information.
- Positioning: First you have to decide where you want to place the generator. Ventilation and exhaust extensions should be particularly observed when installing in a confined space. If it is to be placed outside, cabin and platform issues should be considered.
- Ground: It should be flat and water-free. A safe height can be created by building a platform. It is also useful to make a protective porch on the generator in the outdoor environment.
- Ventilation: It must be placed in a room or area with adequate ventilation to remove the heat emitted from the alternator, engine and engine coolant from the radiator by means of a propellant fan mounted between the engine and the radiator. At the same time, fresh air must be provided.
- Fuel System: The fuel must be supplied continuously and cleanly. Manual or automatic filling.
- Exhaust System: It should be ensured that the sound from the engine exhaust is reduced and that the toxic gas is released to the atmosphere safely.
-Electrical System: All electrical connections must be made in accordance with the given diagrams and general rules.
Depending on the scenario, your generator may be overloaded and forced to operate at low load. This will reduce the economic and operating efficiency of your generator and shorten its life and cause damage. We gave information about these situations. Use your generator in the category indicated on the label or given to you by our representative. This also applies to the warranty.
The fuel consumption of the generators varies depending on the load situation. KARJEN designs the fuel tanks to operate at full load of the generator set for at least 8 hours. This time will increase as the load decreases.
Generator sets should be tested at least once a week for 10 minutes under load. If it is not to be used for a long time, the storage process in the Maintenance and User Manual should be performed. This issue is very important for the stability of the generator and must be done by authorized service. After prolonged storage, you should also seek assistance from the specialist garage for commissioning. This also concerns the scope of the warranty.